18.11.13

The highest flying birds Nejvýše létající pták

The highest flying birds Nejvýše létající pták



Rüppell's Vulture  

flying  11,000 metres  or 36,100 ft  above sea level


Sup krahujový (gyps rueppellii), také nazývaný sup nádherný nebo sup Rueppellův


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Rüppell's Vulture

Rüppell's Vulture (Gyps rueppellii) is a large vulture that occurs throughout the Sahel region of central Africa. The current population of 30,000 is in decline due to ongoing loss of habitat and other pressures. Also known as Rüppell's Griffon, Rueppell's Griffon, Rüppell's Griffin Vulture, Rueppell's Vulture and other variants, Rüppell's Vulture is named in honour of Eduard Rüppell, a 19th-century German explorer, collector and zoologist. Rüppell's Vulture is considered to be the world's highest-flying bird, with confirmed evidence of a flight at an altitude of 11,000 metres (36,100 ft) above sea level.
Adults are 85–97 cm (33–38 in) long, with a wingspan of 2.26 to 2.6 metres (7.4 to 8.5 ft), and a weight that ranges from 6.4 to 9 kg (14 to 20 lb). Both sexes are alike: mottled brown or black overall with a whitish-brown underbelly and thin, dirty-white fluff covering the head and neck. The base of the neck has a white collar; the eye is yellow or amber, the crop patch deep chocolate-brown. Silent as a rule, they become vocal at the nest and when at a carcass, squealing a great deal.
Rüppell's Vultures are highly social, roosting, nesting, and gathering to feed in large flocks. They can travel fast at need, cruising at up to 35 kilometres per hour (22 mph), and will fly as far as 150 kilometres (93 mi) from a nest site to find food.
Rüppell's Vultures commonly fly at altitudes ranging up to 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). The birds have a specialized variant of the haemoglobin alphaD subunit; this protein has a high affinity for oxygen, which allows the species to take up oxygen efficiently despite the low partial pressure in the upper troposphere. A Rüppell's Vulture was confirmed to have been ingested by a jet engine of an airplane flying over Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire on November 29, 1973 at an altitude of 11,000 metres (36,100 ft). In August 2010 a Rüppell's Vulture escaped a bird of prey site in Scotland, prompting warnings to pilots in the area to keep an eye out due to the danger of collision.
Rüppell's Vultures are creatures of the more arid and mountainous areas of Africa: particularly semi-desert and the fringes of deserts. They roost on inaccessible rock ledges if these are available, or in trees, usually Acacia. When thermal updrafts start to develop enough lift, about two hours after sunrise, Rüppell's Vultures leave the roost and begin to patrol over the plains, using their exceptionally keen eyesight to find large animal carcasses, or carnivores which have made a kill. They will wait, several days if necessary, until a carnivore leaves a carcass. They have been known to take live prey on occasion, but this is rare.
Rüppell's Vultures have several adaptations to their diet and are specialized feeders even among the Old World vultures of Africa. They have an especially powerful build and, after the most attractive soft parts of a carcass have been consumed, they will continue with the hide, and even the bones, gorging themselves until they can barely fly. They have backward-facing spines on the tongue to help remove meat from bone.

source





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1 komentář:

Anonymní řekl(a)...

Ve výšce 11 300 metrů se 29.11.1973 srazil sup krahujový (Gyps rueppellii) s komerčním letadlem letícím nad Pobřežím slonoviny.
Náraz poškodil jeden z motorů, a tak muselo letadlo přistát. Bylo nalezeno dostatek zbytků supova peří, aby Americké muzeum přírodní historie mohlo na jeho základě pozitivně identifikovat tohoto výšinného letce, který je jinak jen vzácně viděn ve výškách nad 6000m.

Tito ptáci mají specializovanou variantu hemoglobinu alphaD, tento protein má vysokou afinitu ke kyslíku, který umožňuje, aby se kyslík efektivně, i přes nízký parciální tlak v horní troposféře, vázal na červené krvinky. Hnízdí ve velkých koloniích, které čítají až 1000 párů.

Hnízdo si staví ve skálách. Hnízda jsou velká o průměru kolem 2,5 metru. Za potravou létají až 150 kilometrů od hnízda.